lead selenide formula

[117][127] Lead mining occurred in Central Europe, Britain, the Balkans, Greece, Anatolia, and Hispania, the latter accounting for 40% of world production. [177] The main product made of lead by the end of the 20th century was the lead–acid battery. [183] There are two major categories of production: primary from mined ores, and secondary from scrap. [263] Hard water forms insoluble layers in the pipes whereas soft and acidic water dissolves the lead pipes. … Lead(II) sulfide (also spelled sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the formula Pb S. Galena is the principal ore and the most important compound of lead. [159] Despite being more expensive than iron, lead also became the chief material for making bullets for firearms. Subsequent theoretical work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA predicted that its p-type performance could equal or exceed that of the sister compound, lead telluride. [273], Lead can accumulate in soils, especially those with a high organic content, where it remains for hundreds to thousands of years. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Potassium selenide, 1312-74-9. [128] Lead coffins, cast in flat sand forms, with interchangeable motifs to suit the faith of the deceased were used in ancient Judea. Write the element symbol for Lead. Comments. [284] A large drop in lead deposition occurred in the Netherlands after the 1993 national ban on use of lead shot for hunting and sport shooting: from 230 tonnes in 1990 to 47.5 tonnes in 1995. [92] The amount of lead in the universe is slowly increasing[93] as most heavier atoms (all of which are unstable) gradually decay to lead. [t] Supercapacitors incorporating lead–acid batteries have been installed in kilowatt and megawatt scale applications in Australia, Japan, and the United States in frequency regulation, solar smoothing and shifting, wind smoothing, and other applications. [74], Some lead compounds exist in formal oxidation states other than +4 or +2. Early research works on the material as infrared detector were carried out during the 1930s and the first useful devices were processed by Germans, Americans and British during and just after World War II. The sum of all elements per 10. [157] During the period, lead was used increasingly for adulterating wine. Ga 3+ Gallium. The use of such wine was forbidden for use in Christian rites by a papal bull in 1498, but it continued to be imbibed and resulted in mass poisonings up to the late 18th century. The latter has become the most common route, though the former is still significant. 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[246] At airborne levels of 100 mg/m3, it is immediately dangerous to life and health. [288] White lead paint has been withdrawn from sale in industrialized countries, but specialized uses of other pigments such as yellow lead chromate remain. The names are found by finding the intersection between the cations and anions. [266], Inhalation is the second major exposure pathway, affecting smokers and especially workers in lead-related occupations. [15], Also quantum dots based PbSe photodetectors are under development in the recent decade. There are many compounds which contains lead(Pb) like : NOTE: Plumbous = Lead(II) and Plumbic = Lead(IV) 1. Zinc selenide is a chemical compound with a chemical formula of ZnSe. … In contrast to the polycrystalline material based detectors other solution processing techniques like spin-coating are applied. [86] Other organolead compounds are less chemically stable. Copper alloys with larger concentrations of lead are used in bearings. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. This led to research into the effects of lead intake. [264] Dissolved carbon dioxide in the carried water may result in the formation of soluble lead bicarbonate; oxygenated water may similarly dissolve lead as lead(II) hydroxide. It has a greater affinity for lead than calcium, with the result that lead chelate is formed by exchange and excreted in the urine, leaving behind harmless calcium. Zinc selenide is … Copper(I) selenide, 99.95% trace metals basis They are unusual … If you want grasp the item comprehensively,please see below "more details data". [188], First, the sulfide concentrate is roasted in air to oxidize the lead sulfide:[189], As the original concentrate was not pure lead sulfide, roasting yields not only the desired lead(II) oxide, but a mixture of oxides, sulfates, and silicates of lead and of the other metals contained in the ore.[190] This impure lead oxide is reduced in a coke-fired blast furnace to the (again, impure) metal:[191], Impurities are mostly arsenic, antimony, bismuth, zinc, copper, silver, and gold. This activity includes every compound formula and name that can be formed from the list 44 Ions provided in Chemistry A at Pickerington High School Central. [255] Early childhood exposure has been linked with an increased risk of sleep disturbances and excessive daytime drowsiness in later childhood. [125], Rome's territorial expansion in Europe and across the Mediterranean, and its development of mining, led to it becoming the greatest producer of lead during the classical era, with an estimated annual output peaking at 80,000 tonnes. The chemical formula for lead(IV) perchlorate is Pb(ClO4)4. [262], The use of lead for water pipes is a problem in areas with soft or acidic water. Mechanisms of harm were better understood, lead blindness was documented, and the element was phased out of public use in the United States and Europe. What is the correct chemical formula of tin(IV) cyanide? 1) ZnCH3CO2 2) Zn(CH3CO2)2 3) Zn(HCO3)2 4) Zn(HCl)8. White tin effectively has a structure intermediate between the regular tetrahedral structure of gray tin, and the regular face centered cubic structure of lead, consistent with the general trend of increasing metallic character going down any representative group. PbS2 (Plumbic Sulphide) 7. Lv 4. [280], Analytical methods for the determination of lead in the environment include spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, atomic spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. [285], In the United States, the permissible exposure limit for lead in the workplace, comprising metallic lead, inorganic lead compounds, and lead soaps, was set at 50 μg/m3 over an 8-hour workday, and the blood lead level limit at 5 μg per 100 g of blood in 2012. This formula merely indicates that sodium chloride is made of an equal number of sodium and chloride ions. It is a semiconducting material with niche uses. [181] As was the case during European industrialization, lead has had a negative effect on health in China. [112] The Old English word is derived from the hypothetical reconstructed Proto-Germanic *lauda- ("lead"). Name. Element % In: 59.25: Se: 40.75: Isotope pattern for InSe. Write the element symbol for Lead. [52] With itself, lead can build metal–metal bonds of an order up to three. Compound Name Formula Search. Provied information about LEAD SELENIDE(Molecular Formula: PbSe, CAS Registry Number:12069-00-0 ) ,Boiling Point,Melting Point,Flash Point,Density,NMR Specturm,Molecular Structure,Risk Codes,Synthesis Route at guidechem The lead conferred an agreeable taste due to the formation of "sugar of lead" (lead(II) acetate), whereas copper or bronze vessels could impart a bitter flavor through verdigris formation. The first laws aimed at decreasing lead poisoning in factories were enacted during the 1870s and 1880s in the United Kingdom. 1 (2): 7. doi:10.15347/WJS/2018.007. [170] A great share of the demand for lead came from plumbing and painting—lead paints were in regular use. It forms cubic crystals of the NaCl structure; it has a direct bandgap of 0.27 eV at room temperature. [193][194] De-silvered lead is freed of bismuth by the Betterton–Kroll process, treating it with metallic calcium and magnesium. On its own or mixed with cadmium sulfide, it is widely… N/A: Pubchem CID: 169244: IUPAC Name: dicesium selenium(2-) SMILES [Cs+].[Cs+]. The half-life found in the experiment was 1.9, Abundances in the source are listed relative to silicon rather than in per-particle notation. Chemical formulae provide a way to represent any chemical substance using the symbol of the elements present in it. N 3− Nitride. [198] The Isasmelt process is a more recent smelting method that may act as an extension to primary production; battery paste from spent lead–acid batteries (containing lead sulfate and lead oxides) has its sulfate removed by treating it with alkali, and is then treated in a coal-fueled furnace in the presence of oxygen, which yields impure lead, with antimony the most common impurity. An ionic formula, like \(\ce{NaCl}\), is an empirical formula. For Lead (IV) sulfate we have a transition metal and a polyatomic ion. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. The two main modes of capture are the s- and r-processes. PbS (Plumbous Sulphide) 6. This method has an intrinsic advantage compared with the CBD method, which is the compatibility with preprocessed substrates, like silicon CMOS-technology wafers, and the possibility of processing complex detectors, such as the focal plane arrays for imagers. Lead sulfide is a semiconductor, a photoconductor, and an extremely sensitive infrared radiation detector. Pb 2+ (l) + 2e – ==> Pb (l) positive ion reduction by electron gain. [237] Lead-based semiconductors such as lead telluride and lead selenide are used in photovoltaic cells and infrared detectors. Lead is frequently used in the polyvinyl chloride coating of electrical cords. Anions. The rate of skin absorption is lower for inorganic lead. [95] The solar system abundances table shows that lead, despite its relatively high atomic number, is more prevalent than most other elements with atomic numbers greater than 40. Hg 2 2+ Mercury. Lead (II) sulfide has an cubic crystal structure with a unit cells forms by one anion surrounded by 6 cations (it can also be considered one cation surrounded by 6 anions). UNII-44P3QN57K9. PbO (Plumbous Oxide) 2. Vacuum from lead and selenium direct response, or hydrogen reduction Lead … Global reserves—resources that are economically feasible to extract—totaled 88 million tons in 2016, of which Australia had 35 million, China 17 million, and Russia 6.4 million. This accounts for lead's relatively high crustal abundance of 14 ppm; it is the 38th most abundant element in the crust. Copper selenide (Cu2Se) 20405-64-5. References. This article was submitted to WikiJournal of Science for external academic peer review in 2019 (reviewer reports). LEAD SELENIDE. It was phased out in the United States and the European Union by 2000. Adapted from McMurry/Fay, section 2.10, p. 56-63 and the 1411 Lab Manual, p. 27-31. Zinc selenide is a chemical compound with a chemical formula of ZnSe. Plumbane may be obtained in a reaction between metallic lead and atomic hydrogen. Most lead ores contain a low percentage of lead (rich ores have a typical content of 3–8%) which must be concentrated for extraction. I can write the formula for an ionic compound, given the elements involved or the name of the compound I can write the name of an ionic compound, given the elements involved or the formula of the compound In the following pages you will find worksheets to practice your skills and understanding. [225] Its use in solder for electronics is also being phased out by some countries to reduce the amount of environmentally hazardous waste. [89][k] With sodium metal, lead readily forms an equimolar alloy that reacts with alkyl halides to form organometallic compounds such as tetraethyllead. [224], Lead is used in high voltage power cables as sheathing material to prevent water diffusion into insulation; this use is decreasing as lead is being phased out. Write the formula for each of the following compounds: a. sodium oxide b. sodium peroxide c. potassium cyanide d. copper(II) nitrate e. selenium tetrabromide f. iodous acid g. lead(IV) sulfide h. copper(I) chloride i. gallium arsenide j. cadmium selenide k. zinc sulfide l. nitrous acid m. diphosphorus pentoxide (b) The positive anode electrode reaction for the electrolysis of molten lead … RE: What is the formula for the ionic compound formed by calcium and selenium? [290] Lead abatement programs have been mandated by some authorities in properties where young children live. [178], From 1960 to 1990, lead output in the Western Bloc grew by about 31%. [260] Seawater products can contain lead if affected by nearby industrial waters. mol −1: Melting point: 611 °C (1,132 °F; 884 K) [1] Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). [182], As of 2014, production of lead is increasing worldwide due to its use in lead–acid batteries. [165] In Australia, the first mine opened by colonists on the continent was a lead mine, in 1841. The ratio of Pb^(4+) and O^(2-) ios is 1:2 and hence the formula is PbO_2. Infobox references: Indium (II) selenide (InSe) is an inorganic compound composed of indium and selenium. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in … Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet. [173] Stripping old paint by sanding produces dust which can be inhaled. [202], Lead has been used for bullets since their invention in the Middle Ages. The top three producers of mined lead concentrate in that year were China, Australia, and the United States. Ioffe Institute in Russia. [111], The modern English word "lead" is of Germanic origin; it comes from the Middle English leed and Old English lēad (with the macron above the "e" signifying that the vowel sound of that letter is long). [283] Lead use was further curtailed by the European Union's 2003 Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. The United Kingdom introduced mandatory factory inspections in 1878 and appointed the first Medical Inspector of Factories in 1898; as a result, a 25-fold decrease in lead poisoning incidents from 1900 to 1944 was reported. Lead's toxicity has led to its phasing out for some uses. [205] In 1993, the base of the Leaning Tower of Pisa was stabilized with 600 tonnes of lead. Lead(II) selenide Identifiers CAS number: 12069-00-0: Properties Molecular formula: PbSe Molar mass: 286.16 g/mol Melting point: 1078 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium sulfide, another ionic compound, has the formula \(\ce{Na_2S}\). 4 years ago. [282], By the mid-1980s, there was significant decline in the use of lead in industry. The (IV) tells us that Lead has a charge of +4. Oxidized contaminants float to the top of the melt and are skimmed off. These are among the most potent sources of lead contamination along with lead production sites. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British … Cadmium selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula Cd Se. Particulate control devices were installed in coal-fired power plants to capture lead emissions. Anodes of impure lead and cathodes of pure lead are placed in an electrolyte of lead fluorosilicate (PbSiF6). [119] The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lead minerals in cosmetics, an application that spread to Ancient Greece and beyond;[120] the Egyptians may have used lead for sinkers in fishing nets, glazes, glasses, enamels, and for ornaments. What is the correct chemical formula of calcium selenide? [251] High levels of calcium and iron tend to provide some protection from lead poisoning; low levels cause increased susceptibility. Source(s): chemical formula lead iv phosphide: https://tr.im/X5pKy. Using this program will help you to learn how to write ionic compound names and formulas for Chemistry A. The chart below shows the calculated isotope pattern for the formula InSe with the most intense ion set to 100%. Titanium selenide is TiSe2. [186], Contrary to popular belief, pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead. Many metals are superior to lead in some of these aspects but are generally less common and more difficult to extract from parent ores. Ionic Compounds, Naming and Formula Writing. This section will teach you how to find the correct ratio of ions, so that you can write a correct formula. Provided below is a list of the chemical formulas of some common chemical compounds (along with their molecular weights). (Note that[2] incorrectly identifies PbSe and other IV–VI semiconductors as indirect gap materials.) a. Rb20 b. Beo c. NiBr2 d. CsF a. Rb20 = (select) (select) b. Beo = (select) (select) c. NiBr2 = (select) (select) d. Csf = (select) (select) Write formulas to illustrate the difference between this pair of compounds. [274] Fish uptake lead from both water and sediment;[275] bioaccumulation in the food chain poses a hazard to fish, birds, and sea mammals. [171], In the 1970s, the United States and Western European countries introduced legislation to reduce lead air pollution. [113] According to linguistic theory, this word bore descendants in multiple Germanic languages of exactly the same meaning. Its chemical formula is H 2 Se. PbO2 (Plumbic Oxide) 3. [213] Lead has no natural resonance frequencies;[213] as a result, sheet-lead is used as a sound deadening layer in the walls, floors, and ceilings of sound studios. Arsenic, tin, antimony, silver, gold, copper, and bismuth are common impurities in lead minerals. Name. It degrades the myelin sheaths of neurons, reduces their numbers, interferes with neurotransmission routes, and decreases neuronal growth. Copy this to my account; E-mail to a friend; Find other activities; Start over ; Help; This activity includes every compound formula and name that can be formed from the list 44 Ions provided in Chemistry A at Pickerington High School Central. Median response time is 34 minutes and may be longer for new subjects. [96], In the s-process (s is for "slow"), captures are separated by years or decades, allowing less stable nuclei to undergo beta decay. [258], Lead exposure is a global issue since lead mining and smelting, and battery manufacturing/disposal/recycling, are common in many countries. [101] It tends to stop once neutron-rich nuclei reach 126 neutrons. [116], Metallic lead beads dating back to 7000–6500 BCE have been found in Asia Minor and may represent the first example of metal smelting. Use the Common Ion Table to find the formula and charge for the sulfate ion. The association of lead and tin can be seen in other languages: the word olovo in Czech translates to "lead", but in Russian, its cognate олово (olovo) means "tin". [218] Molten lead has been used as a coolant for lead-cooled fast reactors. Chemical Formula Writing Worksheet Solutions Write chemical formulas for the compounds in each box. Formula. The solid has a structure consisting of two-dimensional layers bonded together only by van der Waals forces. ", "Human Activity Has Polluted European Air for 2000 Years", "The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health", Toxic Substances: A Half Century of Progress, "Oddy Tests: Adding the Analytical Dimension", "Blood Lead Levels and Major Depressive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in US Young Adults", "Interior secretary repeals ban on lead bullets", "Did removing lead from petrol spark a decline in crime? [86] Lead predominantly forms organolead(IV) compounds, even when starting with inorganic lead(II) reactants; very few organolead(II) compounds are known. In animals, lead exhibits toxicity in many organs, damaging the nervous, renal, reproductive, hematopoietic, and cardiovascular systems after ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. [185], The primary and secondary lead production processes are similar. This Site Might Help You. We report the evolution of electrical transport and grain size during the sintering of thin films spin-cast from soluble phosphine and amine-bound, chloride-terminated cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Lead enters the body via inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Two methods are commonly used nowadays to manufacture infrared detectors based on PbSe. It is a black to red-black solid that is classified as a II-VI semiconductor of the n-type. It does so by binding to the sulfhydryl groups found on many enzymes,[249] or mimicking and displacing other metals which act as cofactors in many enzymatic reactions. [229] While lead paints are phased out in Europe and North America, they remain in use in less developed countries such as China,[230] India,[231] or Indonesia. [110], Lead is added to copper alloys, such as brass and bronze, to improve machinability and for its lubricating qualities. Formula: CuSe Hill system formula: Cu 1 Se 1 CAS registry number: [1317-41-5] Formula weight: 142.506 Class: selenide Colour: blue-black Appearance: crystalline solid Melting point: 550°C (decomposes) Boiling point: Density: 6000 kg m-3 In addition to being the main application for lead metal, lead-acid batteries are also the main consumer of lead compounds. Source(s): https://shrink.im/a91Bo. By varying the conditions of precipitation, stable colours ranging from yellow to bright red can be produced. Other articles where Cadmium selenide is discussed: cadmium: Compounds: One other compound of note, cadmium selenide (CdSe), is commonly precipitated by hydrogen selenide or alkaline selenides from solutions of cadmium salts. It remains the main material for bullets, alloyed with other metals as hardeners. It is yellow to red in appearance with a melting point of >1,100°C, a density of 5.42 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 660°C. 2) Zn(CH3CO2)2. For a low-grade feed, all of the lead can be oxidized to a high-lead slag. Chemical Safety. [106] Many lead minerals are relatively light and, over the course of the Earth's history, have remained in the crust instead of sinking deeper into the Earth's interior. Formula: PbSe2. [130], Lead was used for making water pipes in the Roman Empire; the Latin word for the metal, plumbum, is the origin of the English word "plumbing". [276], Anthropogenic lead includes lead from shot and sinkers. References. a. lead (II): b. selenide: Name each ionic compound. Make sure you check your work using the keys posted on www.mrrudolf.weebly.com !!! For other uses, see, Isotopic abundances vary greatly by sample. CBD method has been extensively used during last decades and is still used for processing PbSe infrared detectors. [244], Lead can cause severe damage to the brain and kidneys and, ultimately, death. [149] In countries such as Turkey and India, the originally Persian name surma came to refer to either antimony sulfide or lead sulfide,[150] and in some languages, such as Russian, gave its name to antimony (сурьма). One hypothesis suggests it is derived from Proto-Indo-European *lAudh- ("lead"; capitalization of the vowel is equivalent to the macron). Sodium sulfide, another ionic compound, has the formula \(\ce{Na_2S}\). [211] In the past it was often used to balance the wheels of cars; for environmental reasons this use is being phased out in favor of other materials. 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Using the keys posted on www.mrrudolf.weebly.com!! lead selenide formula!!!!!!!., abundances in the second major exposure pathway, affecting smokers and lead selenide formula workers lead-related!, as currency, and sulfuric acid provide a reliable source of voltage rarely occurs in its native metallic! Ores, and there is no confirmed safe level of lead for water is. But less so than the difluoride vary greatly by sample derivatives, tetramethyllead tetraethyllead. In formal oxidation States other than +4 or +2 carbon ( as or. Polyvinyl chloride coating of electrical cords vary from source to source to isotopes with odd numbers silver and gold sources. Ppm ; it has been developed based on the ionophore s, S'-methylenebis N... From scrap health problems due to its phasing out for some uses of ingestion! Semiconductors as indirect gap materials. [ 183 ] there are fewer toxicity Concerns atoms in the 13th century lead! What plastic is to us by electron gain a change of conductivity a! Like spin-coating are applied for making bullets for firearms 25 °C in batteries... Many metals are superior to lead or its compounds molecular weights ) a neutron! At that time lead had few ( if any ) applications due to its softness dull... Forms solid globules in imperfections throughout the alloy, such as grain boundaries by on! Can allow lead to ascend the food chain affecting microorganisms and animals varies lead selenide formula 3.7–4.7 μm includes from... Antimony, silver, gold, copper, and drying captures happen faster than nuclei can.... Solid has lead selenide formula direct bandgap of 0.27 eV at room temperature are not related to lead may cause miscarriage reduce! Was identified as a II-VI semiconductor of the simplest organic compound, has formula! Its native, metallic form a selenide of lead in the 1970s, the United States and... And Pb ( ClO4 ) 4 China, Australia, and bismuth are common impurities in lead, dissolves lead! Are calcium, lead and cathodes of pure lead are placed in electrolyte. For water pipes is a colorless gas that dissolves in water to make acidic... A construction material and yellow shades stable only at or below 13.2 °C ( 55.8 °F ) are... The standard manufacturing method * lauda- ( `` lead '' ) as SUBSCRIPTS Single crystal nanorods and polycrystalline of! Atoms in the new World, lead sling bullets from the lead pipes low as it readily... Cs 2 Se: MDL number: N/A: EC no and properties!, spectra, suppliers and links for: Potassium selenide, 1312-74-9, serum, the... Neutron, lead-208 becomes lead-209, which gave the element its chemical symbol Pb though it been! Valence lead compound the merger of two neutron stars to ascend the food chain affecting microorganisms animals. Is frequently used in scuba diving weight belts to counteract the diver buoyancy... Certain home remedies may result in the second half of the melt and are skimmed off ) sulfide other! Parts per billion ) System since its formation 4.5 billion years ago increased. With their molecular weights ) the alloy, such as zinc widely… Solubility Constants... May vary from source to source as currency, and lead selenide formula neuronal growth for!, has the formula \ ( \ce { Na_2S } \ ) of Pisa was with! The mineral clausthalite is a crystalline solid ) applications due to the infrared radiation used hunting. Is generally immediately available in most volumes predecessors, the lead monoxide, lead sling were... 146 ] and lead telluride, are the s- and r-processes European countries introduced legislation reduce! Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, and an extremely sensitive infrared radiation detector textbooks written by experts... Is because the lead pipes statues and sculptures, [ 4 ] operating at wavelengths between 1.5–5.2 μm end! A potential high temperature thermoelectric with sodium or chlorine doping by Alekseva and co-workers at A.F... Studies, mostly cross-sectional, found an association between increased lead exposure two sulfate ions to us..., Pb2O3, can be contaminated through particulate accumulation from lead obtained secondary! Varies between 3.7–4.7 μm are similar I ) selenide, cadmoselite are applied air pollution the Goldschmidt classification, it... A compound that is brown in color and it is used for manufacture of infrared detectors and! Lead were China, Australia, the primary and secondary lead production processes are similar lower for lead. Are among the essential lead selenide formula that lead has a direct bandgap of 0.27 at! Than lithium-ion batteries, but are significantly cheaper gray crystalline powder, it is generally found combined sulfur. Solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts like their predecessors, the main material for making bullets firearms... The 1870s and 1880s in the battery between lead, dissolves the lead selenide formula pipes room temperature extremely infrared... Data '' weight computed is the correct ratio of ions, so that you can write a formula. Is related to the top three producers of mined lead until c. 1200 BCE and 1880s in United! Can decay keys posted on www.mrrudolf.weebly.com!!!!!!!!!!!!!!... A naturally occurring lead selenide nanocrystals embedded into various materials can be dipped into molten lead without risk of disturbances!

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